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Choosing the Right Material for Your Forging Dies

Last updated:
May 8, 2024
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Table Of Contents

1. Basic requirements of various forging dies on material properties

Table 1 Basic requirements of various forging dies on material properties

Type of forging dieUsage requirements
Hot forging diesHardness, impact resistance, heat fatigue resistance
Hot forging dieHeat fatigue resistance
Hot extrusion dieWear resistance, thermal hardness, heat fatigue resistance
High-speed forging dieToughness, hardness, heat fatigue resistance
Precision forging dieHigh-temperature strength, temper resistance, wear and heat fatigue resistance
Hot rolling mill rollHeat fatigue resistance
Cold heading dieHardness, wear resistance, impact resistance
Stamping dieStrength, hardness
Cold trimming, punching dieHardness, wear resistance, impact resistance

2. Hardness and performance comparison of commonly used steels for forging dies (see Table 9-2)

Table 2 Performance comparison of commonly used steels for forging dies

GradeUse hardness HRCMachinableWear resistanceImpact resistanceQuenching deformation resistanceDepth of hardened layerHeat hardnessDecarburization sensitivity
Carbon tool steelT7, T854~60PoorPoorBetterWorseShallowPoorBig
T9~T1356~65WorseWorseMediumWorseShallowDifferenceBig
Alloy tool steelCr12MoV55~63BetterGoodPoorGoodDeepBetterSmaller
5CrMnMo30~47PoorMediumMediumMediumMediumPoorerLarger
5CrNiMo30~47PoorMediumBetterMediumMediumWorseLarger
3Cr2W8V45~54WorseBetterMediumBetterDeepBetterSmaller
4Cr5MoSiV40~54PoorBetterMediumBetterDeepWorseMedium
35Cr3Mo3W2V44~54PoorBetterMediumBetterDeepBetterMedium
3Cr3Mo3V40~54PoorBetterMediumBetterDeepBetterMedium
4Cr3W4Mo2VTiNb48~56WorseBetterMediumBetterDeepBetterMedium
5Cr4W5Mo2V50~56PoorBetterPoorMediumDeepBetterMedium

Note: The performance sequence is Good > Better > Medium > Poor > Bad.

3. Selection of mold materials

(1) Selection of hot forging mold materials

There are many factors that affect the life of hot forging dies, such as: the stress conditions of the die, working temperature, cooling method, properties of the material being processed, amount of deformation, deformation speed, and lubrication conditions, etc. Therefore, these factors must be fully considered when selecting materials.

Hot work dies can generally be divided into: hammer forging dies, hot die forging press dies, screw press forging dies, extrusion dies, etc. The type of die and specific working conditions should be considered to reasonably select the die materials. The selection of materials for hot forging dies is shown in Table 9-3.

Table 3 Selection of Materials for Hot Forging Dies

Die TypeSize and Working ConditionsRecommended Materials
Hammer Forging DieHeight less than 275mm (Small)5CrMnMo, 5CrNiMo, 5SiMnMoV, 4SiMnMoV
Height 275~325mm (Medium)5CrMnMo, 5CrNiMo, 5SiMnMoV, 4SiMnMoV
Height 325~375mm (Large)5CrNiMo, 5CrMnSiMoV, 4CrMnSiMoV
Height greater than 375mm (extra large)5CrNiMo, 5CrMnSiMoV, 4CrMnSiMoV
Cladding module5Cr2MnMo
Insert type4Cr5MoSiV1, 3Cr2W8V, 4Cr3Mo3W2V, 4CrMnMoSiV
Hot die forging press dieIntegral type5CrNiMo, 5CrMnMo, 4CrMnMoSiV, 5CrMnMoSiV, 4Cr5MoSiV, 4Cr5MoSiV1, 4Cr5W2SiV, 3Cr2W8V, 4Cr3Mo3W2V, 5Cr4Mo2W2SiV
Inlay typeInsert4Cr5MoSiV1, 4Cr5MoSiV, 4Cr5W2SiV, 3Cr2W8V, 5Cr4W2Mo2SiV
Mold body5CrNiMo, 5CrMnMo, 4CrMnMoSiV
Screw press forging dieIntegral type5CrMnMo, 5CrNiMo, 8Cr3
Inlay styleInlay block3Cr2W8V, 4Cr5W2VSi
Module40Cr, 45 steel
Hot extrusion diePunch3Cr2W8V, 3Cr3Mo3W2V, 4Cr5W2SiV, 4Cr5MoSiV1, 4Cr5MoSiV, 4CrMnMoSiV
Die3Cr2W8V, 3Cr3Mo3W2V, 4Cr5W2SiV, 4Cr5MoSiV1, cemented carbide, steel bonded carbide, high temperature alloy
Warm extrusion dieW18Cr4V, W6Mo5Cr4V2, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, 6Cr4W3Mo2VNb, etc.
High-speed forging die4Cr5W2SiV, 4Cr5MoSiV, 4Cr5MoSiV1, 4Cr3Mo3 W4VTiNb
Hot trimming die6CrW2Si, 5CrNiMo, 3Cr2W8V, 4Cr5MoSiV1, 4CrMnSiMoV, 8Cr3, W6Mo5Cr4V2, W18Cr4V, hard alloy, etc

(2) Selection of Cold Forging Die Materials

There are many types of cold forging dies, mainly used for completing metal or non-metal material upsetting, extrusion, and other powder pressing, imprinting processes. Due to different loading methods and the nature and specifications of the materials processed, the working conditions of various molds differ greatly. Therefore, material selection should be differentiated and based on specific circumstances. The selection of cold forging die materials is shown in Table 9-4.

Table 4 Selection of Cold Forging Die Materials

Die TypeWorking ConditionsRecommended Materials
Cold Heading DieLow PressureT10A, T12A, 9Mn2V, CrWMn, MnCrWV, Cr2, 7CrSiMnMoV, GW15, 60Si2Mo, etc.
Medium PressureCrWV, Cr5MoV, Cr2Mn2SiWMoV
High PressureCr12, Cr12MoV, Cr4W2MoV, W18Cr4V, W6Mo5Cr4V2, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, 6Cr4W3Mo2VNb, cemented carbide (YG20, YG20C, etc.)
Cold extrusion diePunchW6Mo5 Cr4V2, W18Cr4V, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, Cr12MoV, 6Cr4W3Mo2VNb, Cr12, etc.
Die (with liner)Cr12, Cr12MoV, W6Mo5Cr4V, W18Cr4V, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, 6Cr4W3Mo2VNb, Cr4W2MoV, etc.
Die (without liner)9Mn2V, CrWMn, MnCrWV, Cr2, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, 6Cr4W3Mo2VNb, etc.
Powder cold pressing diePunchCr6WV, W6Mo5Cr4V2, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, CrWMn, MnCrWV, Cr2, GCr15, etc.
DieCr12, Cr12MoV, W6Mo5Cr4V2, W18Cr4V, Cr4W2MoV, 6W6Mo5Cr4V, cemented carbide, etc.
Rolling dieThread rolling plate9SiCr, Cr12MoV
Thread rolling, gear rollingCr12MoV, Cr6WV
Drawing dieNon-ferrous metalCr12, Cr12MoV, CrWMn, Cr2, 9Mn2V, T12A, etc.
Steel wireCr12, Cr12MoV, W18Cr4V, W6Mo5Cr4V2, W12Mo3Cr4V3N, etc.
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