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Forging Temperature Charts: A Key Guide

Last updated:
May 8, 2024
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Table Of Contents

I. The forging temperature range for steel is shown in Table 1.

Table 1 The forging temperature range for steel

GradeForging temperature/°C
Start forgingFinal Forging
Q195, Q2151300700
Q2351250700
08F, 08, 10F, 10, 15F, 15, 20F, 20, 25, 30, 15Mn, 20Mn, 30Mn1250800
40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 40Mn, 45Mn, 50Mn1200800
10Mn2, 15Mn2, 20Mn2, 30Mn2, 35Mn2, 40Mm2, 45Mn2, 50Mn2, 27SiMn, 35SiMn1200800
42SiMn1150800
20MnV, 35SiMn2MoV1200800
25Mn2V, 42Mn2V, 30SiMn2MoV1180800
30Mm2MoW1150850
12SiMn2WV1180850
15SiMn3MoWV1200900
37SiMn2MoWV1170800
20Mn2B, 20MnTiB1200800
25MnTiB, 20Mn2TiB, 20MnVB1200850
20SiMnVB1180800
30Mn2MoTiB1100850
40B, 45B, 40MnB, 45MnB, 40MnVB, 40MnWB, 38CrSi, 40CrSi1150850
15CrMn, 20CrMn, 40CrMn1150800
20CrMnSi, 25CrMnSi1200800
30CrMnSi, 35CrMnSi1150850
15CrMn2SiMo1200900
20CrV, 16Mo1250800
40CrV, 45CrV, 18CrMnTi, 20CrMnTi, 30CrMnTi, 35CrMnTi, 40CrMnTi1200800
12CrMo, 15CrMo, 20CrMo1200800
30CrMo1180800
35CrMo, 42CrMo1150850
15CrMnMo, 20CrMnMo1200900
40CrMnMo1150850
12CrMoV, 24CrMoV, 25C2MoV, 25G2MolV1100850
12Cr1MoV, 35CrMoV1150850
38CrMoAl1180850
18Cr3MoWV, 20Cr3MoWV1150850
15Cr, 20Cr, 30Cr, 35Cr, 40Cr, 45Cr, 50Cr1200800
20CrNi1200800
40CrNi, 45CrNi1150850
12CrNi2, 12CrNi31200800
20CrNi3, 37CrNi13, 12Cr2Ni4, 20Cr2Ni41180850
40CrNiMo1150850
18Cr2Ni4W1180850
20NiMo1200830
40NiMo1150900
T7, T7A, T8, T8A1150800
T9, T9A, T10, T10A1100770
T11, T11A, T12, T12A, T13, T13A1050750
9Mn2, 9Mn2V, MnSi, 6MnSiV, 5SiMnMoV, 9SiCr, SiCr, Cr21100800
Cr, Cr06, 8Cr1050850
Cr121080840
CrMn, 5CrMnMo1100800
Cr6WV, CrW51050850
CrW, Cr12W1150850
3Cr2W8V1120850
CrWMn1100800
9CrWMn, 5CrW2Si, 6CrW2Si, 4CrW2Si1100850
Cr12MoV1100840
3CrAl, CrV1050850
8CrV1120800
5CrNiMo, W1, W21100800
5W2GrSiV, 4W2CrSiV, 3W2CrSiV, WCrV, W3GrV1050850
3W4GrSiV, 3W4Cr2V, V, CrMn2SiWMoV, Cr4W2MoV1100850
8V1100800
4Cr5W2SiV1150950
SiMnMo1000850
5CrMnSiMoV1200700
W18Gr4V, W9C4V21150900
W6Mo5Cr4V2, CW18C4V1130900
W6Mo5 Cr4V31100900
06Cr131150750
12Cr13, 20Cr13, 30Cr13, 40Cr13, Cr17Ti1150750
Cr171100750
Cr281120700
Cr9Mn181180850
32Cr13Mo1150800
14Cr17Ni21130850
06Cr19Ni10, 12Cr18Ni9, 17Cr18Ni91130850
Cr18Mn8Ni51200850
Cr17Mo2Ti, Cr25Mo3Ti31150800
Cr18Nil1Nb1200900
90Cr18MoV1100750
Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti, Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti1200850
9Cr17MoVCo1130850
Cr18Ni9Cu3Ti1200870
Cr18Ni19Mo1Cu2Ti1200900
42Cr9Si21130850
Cr13Si3, Cr18Si2, Cr20Si31100800
Cr25Si21050800
4Cr3Si4, Cr5Mo1150850
Cr6SiMo1170850
4Cr16Si2Mo, Cr11MoV1150850
Cr13SiAl, Cr17A14Si1100800
Cr8A15, Cr7A17, Cr20Al5Co2, Cr13 A141050800
1Cr17A151050800
0Cr25A151050800
1Cr14Ni14W2MoTi1150850
45Cr14Ni14W2Mo, Cr15Ni36W3Ti1130900
65, 70, 75, 85, 60Mn, 65Mn1100800
55Si2Mn, 60Si2Mn, 60Si2MnA1100850
50CrMn, 50CrMnA, 50CrVA, 50CrMnVA1150850
GCr6, GCr9, GCr9SiMn, GCr15, GCr15SiMn1080800

II. Forging temperature and heating specifications for high-temperature alloys are shown in Table 2

Table 2 Forging temperature and heating specifications for high-temperature alloys

GradeForging TemperaturePreheatHeating
Start Forging/℃End Forging/℃Temperature/℃Holding Time/(min/mm)Temperature/℃Heat preservation time/(min/mm)
Iron-based alloyGH213611009007500.6~0.811300.4~0.8
GH1015, GH1016, GH114011509007501170
GH113911009007501130
GH201811409007501160
GH1035, GH1131, GH114011009007501130
GH203611809808001200
GH213511209507501140
GH213011009507501130
GH2132, GH230211009507501130
GH298411309007501150
GH290111209507501140
Nickel-based alloyGH3030, GH303911609008000.4~0.811800.4~0.8
GH312811609507501180
GH4163, GH317011509808001170
GH4033116010008001180
GH4133750
GH4037, GH4049, GH4220116010507501180
GH4080A, GH4141114010007501160
GH4710111010007501130
GH414511608507501180
GH416911209507501120
GH4738115010501170

III. The forging and die forging temperature range and permissible deformation degree of aluminum alloys are shown in Table 3. The extrusion and forging temperatures for processing aluminum and aluminum alloys are shown in Table 4.

Table 3 Forging and die forging temperature range and permissible deformation degree of aluminum alloys

GradeForging temperature/℃Permissible deformation degree (%)
Start forgingEnd forgingHammer (8m/s)Press (0.3m/s)
5A02, 3A21420 to 470350≥80≥80
6A02, 2A50, 2B50As-cast condition
40 to 50<50
Deformed condition
50 to 65<80
2A11, 2A14, 2A02440~470
420~450
400
380
As-cast condition
4040~50
Deformed condition
2A90, 2A80, 2A70, 5A05, 5A06420~470
400~430
350
320
50~70
50~60
<80

>60
7A03, 7A04, 7A05, 7A06400~430

370~400
350
320
As-cast condition
30~4040~50
Deformed condition
50~6080

Table 4 Extrusion and Forging Temperatures for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

GradeExtrusion Temperature/°CForging Temperature/℃
1070A250~450
1060
1050A
1035
1200
8A03
5A02320 ~450350~470
5A03320 ~450350~470
5A05380 ~450350~440
5A06380 ~450350~440
5A12380 ~450350~440
3A21320 ~450
2A01320 ~450
2A02440 ~460380~470
2A06440 ~460
2A10320 ~450
2A11320 ~450380~470
2A12400 ~450380~470
2A16440 ~460400~460
2A17440 ~460
7A03300 ~450
7A04300~450380~450
6A02370 ~450400~500
2A50370 ~450380~480
2B50370 ~450380~480
2A70375 ~450380~480
2A80375~450380~480
2A90375 ~450380~480
2A14400 ~450380~480

IV. The forging temperature range for copper and copper alloys is shown in Table 5. The hot deformation temperature for copper alloys is shown in Table 6. The brittle temperature range for some copper alloys is shown in Table 7.

Table 5 Forging Temperature Range for Copper and Copper Alloys

GradeForging Temperature Range/℃
T1, T2, T3, T4900~650
H90900~700
H80830~700
H70830~700
H68820~650
H62820~650
H59820~650
HPb61-1800~650
HPb59-1730~650
HSn60-1820~650
HSn62-1820~650
HMn58-2800~650
HFe59-1-1800~650
HAI77-2760~670
HAI60-1-1750~650
HAI59-3-2730~650
HAI80-3800~700
HSi65-1.5-3780~650
HNi65-5840~650
QA15830~700
QA17840~700
QA19-2900~700
QA19-4850~700
QA110-3-1.5850~700
QA110-4-4900~750
Qsi1-3880~700
QSi3-1800~630
QSn7-0.2780~700
QSn6.5-0.4740~650
QSn6.5-0.1790~660
QMn3-1800~630
QCd1850~650
QCr0.5870~670
QBe2800~600

Table 6 Hot Deformation Temperature for Copper Alloys

GradeTemperature/℃
Die ForgingExtrusion
Copper
T2, T3, T4800~950775~925
Brass
H96700~850830~880
H90800~900820~900
H80, H85, H70820~870
H68700~850750~830
H62700~850700~850
HA177-2700~830
HA160-1-1700~750
HA159-3-2700~750700~750
HNi65-5650~850750~850
HFe59-1-1650~820650~750
HMn58-2600~750625~700
HMn57-3-1600~730625~700
HSn90-1850 ~900850~900
HSn70-1650~750650~750
HSn62-1680~750700~750
HSn60-1700~820700~820
HPb59-1640,780640,780
Bronze
QA15750~900830~880
QA17760~900850~900
QA19-2800~960750~850
QA19-4750~900750~850
QA110-3-1.5750~900700~850
QA110-4-4800~900830~880
QBe2650~800660~720
QBe2.5720~800660~720
QSi3-1600~780875~825
QSi1-3800~910850~900
QSn4-0.25800~920750~800
QSn6.5-0.4800~920680~770
(QCr0.5)800~920
White bronze
BZn15-20800~920750~825
BFe28-2.5-1.5800~920850~950

Table 7 Temperature range of brittleness zone for some copper alloys

GradeBrittleness zone temperature range/°C
H96650~750
H80, H90350~600
H62300~600
H70400~700
HPb59-1250~600
QA15300~600
QA19-2200~600
QA110-3-1.5200~400
QBe2200~500
Pure copper400~700

V. Forging temperatures for titanium and titanium alloys are shown in Table 8. Forging heating specifications for titanium alloys are shown in Table 9.

Table 8 Forging temperatures for titanium and titanium alloys

GradeDeformed billetFinished product
Heating temperature/°CFinal forging temperature/℃ ≥Heating temperature/℃Final forging temperature/℃ ≥
TA1900~950700850~880700
TA2900~950700850~880700
TA3900~950700850~880700
TA41030~1050800
TA51000~1050800
TA61050~1100850980~1020800
TA71050~1100850980~1020800
TB21090 ~1100800990~1010800
TC1900~950750850~880750
TC2900~950800850~900750
TC3950~1050800950~970750
TC4960~1100800950~970750
TC61000~1050800950~980800
TC91050~1080800950~970800
TC101000~1050800930~940800

Table 9 Titanium alloy forging heating specifications

TypeGradeβ transition temperature

/°C
Pre-deformed blankTitanium ingot
Starting forging temperature/℃Final forging temperature/℃Insulation time / (min/mm)Initial forging temperature / °CFinal forging temperature / °C
α titanium alloyTA2TA3900
(870)
700
(650)
0.8980750
TA4980
(980)
800
(800)
1050850
TA5980
(980)
800
(800)
1050850
TA6TA71025~10501020
(990)
900
(850)
1150900
TA8950~990960
(940)
850
(800)
1150900
β titanium alloyTB1750~800930
(920)
800
(700)
0.7
α+β
titanium alloy
TC1910~930910
(900)
750
(700)
0.7980750
TC3920~960920
(900)
800
(750)
0.71050850
TC4960~1000960
(940)
800
(750)
0.81150850
TC5TC6950~980950
(950)
800
(800)
1150750
TC8970~1000970
(960)
850
(800)
1150900
TC9TC11970~1000970
(960)
850
(800)
1150900
TC10930~960930
(910)
850
(800)
1150900

Note: 1. Data in parentheses in the table are temperatures used for hydraulic presses; data without parentheses are temperatures used for forging hammers.

2. Heating temperature controlled at ±10°C, insulation time is 0.6~0.7min/mm.

VI. Forging and die forging temperature ranges and permissible deformation levels for magnesium alloys are shown in Table 10. Die forging process parameters for magnesium alloys are shown in Table 11.

Table 10 Forging and die forging temperature ranges and permissible deformation levels for magnesium alloys

GradeM2MAZ40MME20MAZ41MAZ80M
Forging Temperature /℃Hammer Upper Die ForgingStart forging430420400
Finish forging340340300
Press Upper Die ForgingStart forging420400390
Finish forging300300280
Allowed Maximum Deformation
Degree /%
On the hammer605035
On the press807060
Allowed Deformation
Degree /%
2515
Forging Temperature on Press and Hammer Upper Die /℃Press Upper Die ForgingStart forging430420400
Final Forging320300300
Cold work hardening of hammerInitial Forging250280
Final Forging230250
Forging Temperature on Hydraulic Press Upper Die /℃Die forgingInitial Forging420400400
Final Forging300
Cold work hardeningInitial Forging250280280
Final Forging230250250

Table 11 Magnesium Alloy Die Forging Processing Parameters

GradeDie Forging Processing Temperature / °CHomogenization AnnealingAnnealing
Temperature/℃Holding Time/hCooling MethodTemperature/℃Holding Time/hCooling Method
M2M260~450410~42512Air Cooling320~3500.5Air Cooling
AZ40M275~450390~41010Air Cooling280~3503~5Air cooling
A741M250~450380~4206~8Air cooling250~2800.5Air cooling
AZ61M250~340390~40510Air cooling320~3500.5~4Air cooling
AZ62M280~350320~3504~6Air cooling
AZ80M300~400390~40510Air cooling350~3803~6Air cooling
ME20M280~450410~42512Air cooling250~3501Air cooling
ZK61M340~420360~39010Air cooled
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