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Hammer Tonnage Calculation: A Comprehensive Guide

Last updated:
May 8, 2024
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Correctly selecting the capacity of die forging equipment is an important condition to ensure the smooth progress of die forging. If the selected capacity is too small, the metal will be difficult to fill the mold cavity, and it will be necessary to increase the number of strikes, thereby reducing production efficiency; on the other hand, if the equipment capacity is too large, it will waste equipment and increase metal loss, and it is also easy to damage the mold or reduce the service life of the forging die, which is also not conducive to safe production.

1. Empirical formula for calculating hammer tonnage

The empirical formulas for calculating the tonnage of various die forging hammers are shown in Table 5-48.

Table 5-48 Empirical formulas for calculating the tonnage of various die forging hammers

EquipmentOfficialInstructions
Double-acting forging hammerm= (3.5~6.3)kAm, m1—Mass of the falling part of the hammer (kg)

E—Energy of the hammer without anvil (J)

A—Horizontal projection area of the forging and flash (cm 2 ), the area of the flash is calculated as half of the warehouse part

k—Material coefficient, determined by Table 5-49
Single-acting forging hammerm1= (1.5~1.8)m
Hammer without anvilE =(20~25)m

Table 5-49 Deformation resistance σ and coefficient k of various materials at final forging temperature

Materialskσ/MPa
Hammer onForging pressHot trimming
Carbon structural steel [w(C) < 0.25%]0.95560100
Carbon structural steel [w(C) > 0.25%]16065120
Low-alloy structural steel [w(C) < 0.25%]16065120
Low-alloy structural steel [w(C) > 0.25%]1.156570150
High-alloy structural steel [w(C) > 0.25%]1.257580200
Alloy tool steel1.5590~100100~120250

2. Theoretical Calculation Formula

The theoretical calculation formula for the tonnage of the forging hammer is shown in Table 5-50.

Table 5-50 Theoretical Calculation Formula for Forging Hammer Tonnage

Forging ShapeFormulaDescription
Circular0 = (1-0.005D) (1.1 + 2 / D) 2 (0.75 + 0.001D 2 ) DσD – Forging Diameter (cm)

σ – Deformation resistance of the forging at final forging temperature (MPa)

This formula is applicable to forgings with a diameter of less than 60cm
Non-circularm = m 0 (1 + 0.1 √(L/B))The maximum length on the horizontal projection surface of the L forging (cm)

B – average width (cm), B=A/L

A – projected area of the forging (cm²)

When calculating m 0 using the above formula, D in the formula should be replaced with the equivalent diameter D e

e = 1.13√A

Note: The values of m, m 0 calculated using the formula in the table are in kg.

3. Nomogram method

The nomogram for determining the tonnage of the forging hammer is shown in Figure 5-1.

Figure 5-1 Nomogram for determining the tonnage of the forging hammer

4. Trimming press

Trimming press (see Table 5-51) forms the basic unit of die forging production together with die forging hammers and heating furnaces—a set, with the nominal pressure P (kN) of the press selected based on the tonnage m of the hammer.

P = Mm

In the formula, M is the matching coefficient (kN/t), which varies with the tonnage of the hammer, and can be taken as M=800~1000kN/t.

Table 5-51 Trimming presses matched with die forging hammers

Mass of the falling part of the die forging hammer /tNominal pressure of the trimming press /kN
0.51000
0.751250
11600
22000
33150
54000
106300~8000
1612500 ~16000

5. Conversion of tonnage of die forging hammers to other forging equipment (see Table 5-52)

Table 5-52 Conversion of tonnage of die forging hammers to other forging equipment (unit: t)

Serial numberDie forging hammerForging pressFriction PressCounterblow Forging
1<0.4<400<120≤1
20.4~0.63400~630120~1891~1.575
30.63~1.0630~1000189~3001.575~2.5
41.0~1.81000~1800300~5402.5~4.5
51.8~2.51800~2500540~7504.5~6.25
62.5~3.152500~3150750~9456.25~7.875
73.15~6.33150~6300945~18907.875~15.75
86.3~8.06300~800015.75~20
98.0~128000~1200020~30
1012~1612000~1600030~40
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